Natural Resources in India
India is endowed with different types of natural Resources such as fertile soil, forests, minerals and water. These resources are unevenly distributed. The various types of different Natural Resources of India is discussed below:
India has a large proportion of well watered fertile lands. In the alluvial soil of the Northern Great Plains of the Sutlej-Ganga plains and Brahmaputra Valley wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, jute, cotton, rapeseed, mustard, sesumum, linseed, etc. are grown in abundance.
In the black soil of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat cotton and sugarcane are grown.
The improper use of soil destroys its composition, texture and structure unscientific irrigation causes capillary action making soil alkaline and unsuitable for cultivation. The proper management of soil is important for soil conservation in India.
India is quite rich in some minerals like iron, coal, mineral oil, manganese, bauxite, chromites, copper, tungsten, gypsum, limestone, mica and so on.
A number of organizations like Geological Survey of India, Indian Bureau of Mines, etc. are engaged in the exploration and development of mineral resource in India.
Hills, mountains and less fertile lands are put under pasture. Scientific methods are followed in rearing cattle. India maintains rich domestic animal diversity.
India has good population of goat, sheep, poultry, cattle, buffalo, etc. Indian livestock plays a vital role in improving the socio-economic status of the rural masses.
Diverse agro-climatic conditions in India facilitate cultivation of a large number of horticulture crops such as vegetables, fruits, flower, medicinal and aromatic plant, mushroom, etc. and plantation corps like tea, coffee and rubber.
They provide opportunities for growing spices.
Fish production has been showing increasing trend. India is one of the leading fish producer.
India possesses a variety of natural vegetation since the country has a varied relief and climate. These forests are confined to the plateaus and hilly mountainous areas. India has a great variety of fauna. There are many national parks and hundreds of wild life sanctuaries.
Forests are called ‘green gold’. They are renewable resources. They provide quality environment. They eat up CO2, the poisons of urbanization, industrialization, explosion of population, etc. They regulate climate as they act as natural ‘sponge’. Arresting soil erosion, increasing soil fertility growing forest based industries, providing medicinal herbs, animal habitats, cattle fodder, domestic fuel and foreign exchange they contribute substantially to Indian economy.
Unfortunately India’s forest cover is diminishing at an alarming rate. So, various measures for afforestation have been introduced.
The forest (conservation) Act 1980 was made in India. No forest can be diverted for non-forest purpose.
The Forest Research Institute was established at Dehradun for research in forestry development. Cutting trees selectively, planting new trees, protecting trees, observing world Forestry Day every March 21 by planting trees, etc. are the schemes of afforestation.